Install Fedora 10 on a machine with Intel 845 chipset

前面讲过,Fedora 是不太注重兼容性的,碰上杂七杂八问题的概率就高。我在 Dell Dimension 2400 上安装 Fedora 10 总是进行不下去,换一台机子也是如此,具体的症状是在 Live User login 界面时花屏、黑屏、或干脆死机。我猜是显卡驱动的原因,Google 了几下基本证实我的判断,问题集中在使用 Intel 845 chipset 的机型上。当年 Intel 845 的畅销如今使得面临这个问题的用户还不少。(但是 Fedora 为什么不解决一下这个问题?)

原因定位得很快,对策就是让 Fedora Live CD 启动时不加载显卡驱动,或按特殊的参数加载显卡驱动。可是,具体怎么做?我又 Google 了好久,一开始找到的方法最后发现在 Fedora 10 上已经不适用了,这些过时的方法浪费我好多时间。我把我走过的弯路也写出来,希望后来者少走弯路。

弯路一:输入启动参数 vmlinux initrd=initrd.img text,试图以文本方式安装,可 kernel 已经不叫 vmlinux,改称 vmlinux0,initrd.img 也不存在,改名 initrd0.img,但就算你把名称弄对了,也别想进入文本模式。

弯路二:追加启动参数 linux xdriver=vesa resolution=1024×768 (我还试过 linux xdriver=vesa resolution=1024*768),试图加载 vesa 通用显卡驱动,强制分辨率。Fedora 10 根本不理这一套。

真正能在 Intel 845 chipset 机型上成功安装 Fedora 10 的办法在 Fedora forum 上有提及,我这里总结一下:

1and1 support is not professional

I am quite happy with Godaddy’s product and service. However, virutalisation time is coming and my current dedicated server is not fast enough. Instead of going back to Godaddy for a VPS, I choose 1&1 as my new supplier.

1&1 offer a slightly better price than Godaddy, but the cost saving is not the incentive of my switching supplier. I trust Godaddy better than 1&1. I think many people feel the same, which makes Godaddy has too many customers. It in turn overloads Godaddy’s servers. (Not efficient and responsive Godaddy’s servers forced me to learn a lot about CLI, which is good for me.)

My reason of being a 1&1 sounds odd. Anyway, I am now a 1&1 customer. But they disappointed me on the first day after purchase.

Before my purchase, I called 1&1 support asking how to order additional IPs because their standard checkout does not have this option. I was told I could order additional IPs after logging into my 1&1 account management (of course I have to purchase and get account open first).

When I got account open, I could not find a link to order additional IPs. So the first support ticket to 1&1 support is “how can I order additional IPs”. Then the reply is “no, 1 VPS can only have 1 IP”!

I have to write to them again to get IPs.

The good thing is the IP coming with 1&1 VPS is UK based. I prefer UK IP to US IP for GEO SEO reasons. Before my purchase, I asked 1&1 support “will I get a UK IP” and was told “no, because all VPS are located in America”. So, why I get a UK IP eventually?

Config CentOS to use the latest software

1and1 VPS OS 可选清单里没有 Fedora,不得不说是个遗憾。当然 CentOS 也不错,可是以前都没接触,使用 CentOS 会有很长的学习过程,但没办法,只能装个 CentOS 用用看。

以前我调查过,CentOS 讲究兼容性,Fedora 追求技术领先。CentOS 安装真得比当初装 Fedora 要容易(Fedora 从6开始到10,我没有一次是一次启动就安装成功的),今天装CentOS 5很顺利(CentOS 兼容性真的那么好?还是我从 Fedora 学来的经验丰富了?)

装完 CentOS,我就面临一个问题:不能 yum install nginx;yum install php 得来的版本也只是 5.1.6。这个简单的比较才觉得 Fedora 的好。我无法想象我还要下载编译 nginx(那一套我还不熟,怕搞砸了)。不过,Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) 已经做好了一个 repository,只要添加这个 repository,

sudo rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/5Server/x86_64/epel-release-5-3.noarch.rpm

然后就可以用 yum install nginx。

但是,yum install php 得来的版本只能是 5.1.6,目前还没找到好办法。

一语惊醒梦中人

由于某种原因,我删掉了 /usr/bin/php, /etc/php.ini 等文件,我指望 yum reinstall php 能把这些文件重新装回去。但是 yum install / remove / reinstall 交替使用了 n 次,还是没见这些文件。

于是我又在想,可能 Fedora 把我以前的安装信息保存在某个地方,毕竟直接去删 /usr/bin/php, /etc/php.ini 等文件不是卸载 package 的正当做法,所以再次用 yum 安装时,它不会把这些文件送回来。怎么让 Fedora 认为我是要象第一次安装 php 那样把这些文件都给装上去呢?我想了好久不得要领,只好去 Fedora forum 提问,由于我的提问也没切中要害,一开始得到的回答也不得要领。

直到突然一个好心人告诉我,/usr/bin/php 是在 php-cli package 里,/etc/php.ini 是在 php-common package 里。一语惊醒梦中人——怎么我总以为这些文件是由一个 php 全包了呢?

Session save path should be writable

由于我系统里的 php session save path 是由当初 apache 创建的,改用 nginx 后就变成不可写了。但是,症状并不直观,php 照样能运行,phpMyAdmin 也能 login,还能查看各库各表的数据,但就是不能更新、删除,也无法 logout。无法 logout phpMyAdmin 的具体症状也不是其他人描述的那样(logout 时提示输入用户名和密码),就是点了没效果,仍在管理界面(还有人说启用 http basic auth login 的话就是无法 logout 的,只能关闭浏览器才 logout,这纯属无稽之谈)。

我一直认为是 phpMyAdmin 或 mysql 设置出问题的,根本没往 php session save path 是否可写这方面想,我想当然地以为如果 php session save path 不可写,在 php 里启用 session 就会出错,别想进入 phpMyAdmin。

Reboot is still the best remedy in Linux

Long time ago, I read an article about moving from Windows to Linux, the top differences a system administrator should keep in mind. I still remember one of the difference is reboot in Linux does not cure the problem as it does for Windows in 99% occasions.

However, today I tried to fix a problem after I manually compiled php 5.2.9 (phpMyAdmin stop working, server response 500 error). I lack of knowledge of configure, make install, so I decided to remove php 5.2.9 and reverse to php 5.2.6 came with Fedora. I like yum install. Yum make my life so easy and it can also install packages perfect for me.

php 5.2.9 executables was installed to /usr/local/bin (as php’s default), but php 5.2.6 was installed to /usr/bin (as fedora yum default). After I yum reinstalled php 5.2.6, I found

If I typed “php-cgi -v”, Fedora could find php-cgi in /usr/bin
If I typed “php -v”, Fedora still looked for php in /usr/local/bin

I did not know why Fedora behave so strangely. After hours trying to correct Fedora mis-behavior without success, I reboot Fedora hopelessly. Then what? Fedora now is willing to load php executable in /usr/bin.

Why Chinese hack Chinese

今天想用 iphone 看电影,于是 google 有关视频格式转换的开源软件。MediaCoder 就在其中,网站做得还中规中矩,装它的软件也让我放心。

安装开始时提示选择语言,只有 Chinese 和 English 可选。没多想就选了个 Chinese,接着病毒防火墙就提示有 Adware,Trojan-Downloader:W32/ConHook.APX。真不爽,赶紧取消安装。重新选了 English,安装过程病毒防火墙没有发现病毒和流氓软件。

这下我更不爽了,为什么中国人做个软件专门害中国人呢(我猜 MediaCoder 出自某个 Chinese 之手吧)!中国网络环境在国际上排在榜尾,行业中人不自律给此雪上加霜。

Install php-fpm on Fedora

Use fedora yum install to install php is very easy. But, there is no yum install available to install php-fpm. I have to download php source and compile it from source.

I do not know why Fedora configures its php this way, but it works fine for me. So I want to configure my php source the same way as Fedora did. I only add –enable-fpm to the configure.

./configure --build=i386-redhat-linux-gnu --host=i386-redhat-linux-gnu --target=i386-redhat-linux-gnu --program-prefix= --prefix=/usr --exec-prefix=/usr --bindir=/usr/bin --sbindir=/usr/sbin --sysconfdir=/etc --datadir=/usr/share --includedir=/usr/include --libdir=/usr/lib --libexecdir=/usr/libexec --localstatedir=/var --sharedstatedir=/usr/com --mandir=/usr/share/man --infodir=/usr/share/info --cache-file=../config.cache --with-libdir=lib --with-config-file-path=/etc --with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d --disable-debug --with-pic --disable-rpath --without-pear --with-bz2 --with-curl --with-exec-dir=/usr/bin --with-freetype-dir=/usr --with-png-dir=/usr --with-xpm-dir=/usr --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-t1lib=/usr --without-gdbm --with-gettext --with-gmp --with-iconv --with-jpeg-dir=/usr --with-openssl --with-png --with-expat-dir=/usr --with-pcre-regex=/usr --with-zlib --with-layout=GNU --enable-exif --enable-ftp --enable-magic-quotes --enable-sockets --enable-sysvsem --enable-sysvshm --enable-sysvmsg --enable-track-vars --enable-trans-sid --enable-yp --enable-wddx --with-kerberos --enable-ucd-snmp-hack --with-unixODBC=shared,/usr --enable-memory-limit --enable-shmop --enable-calendar --enable-dbx --enable-dio --without-mime-magic --without-sqlite --with-libxml-dir=/usr --with-xml --with-system-tzdata --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-pcntl --with-imap=shared --with-imap-ssl --enable-mbstring=shared --enable-mbstr-enc-trans --enable-mbregex --with-ncurses=shared --with-gd=shared --enable-bcmath=shared --enable-dba=shared --with-db4=/usr --with-xmlrpc=shared --with-ldap=shared --with-ldap-sasl --with-mysql=shared,/usr --with-mysqli=shared,/usr/bin/mysql_config --enable-dom=shared --with-dom-xslt=/usr --with-dom-exslt=/usr --with-pgsql=shared --with-snmp=shared,/usr --enable-soap=shared --with-xsl=shared,/usr --enable-xmlreader=shared --enable-xmlwriter=shared --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-pdo=shared --with-pdo-odbc=shared,unixODBC,/usr --with-pdo-mysql=shared,/usr --with-pdo-pgsql=shared,/usr --with-pdo-sqlite=shared,/usr --enable-json=shared --enable-zip=shared --with-readline --enable-dbase=shared --with-pspell=shared --with-mcrypt=shared,/usr --with-mhash=shared,/usr --with-tidy=shared,/usr --with-mssql=shared,/usr

I had several errors when run ./configure

checking for BZip2 in default path… not found
configure: error: Please reinstall the BZip2 distribution
solution: yum install bzip-devel bzip-libs

configure: error: DBA: Could not find necessary header file(s).
solution: yum install gdbm-devel
Well, someone suggests that, I did that, but error still exists. Then under my own decision, I run
yum install php-dba
Error still exists.
yum install qdbm*
Error still exists.
yum install db4*
Pass!

configure: error: libjpeg.(a|so) not found.
solution: yum install libjpeg libjpeg-devel

Configure: error: libpng.(also) not found.
solution: yum install libpng libpng-devel

configure: error: libXpm.(a|so) not found.
solution: yum install libXpm*

Configure: error: freetype.h not found.
solution: yum install freetype-devel

configure: error: Unable to locate gmp.h
solution: yum install mysql-devel

configure: error: utf8_mime2text() has new signature, but U8T_CANONICAL is missing. This should not happen. Check config.log for additional information.
solution: yum install libc-client-devel

configure: error: Cannot find ldap.h
solution: yum install openldap-devel

configure: error: mcrypt.h not found. Please reinstall libmcrypt.
solution: yum install libmcrypt-devel

configure: error: Please reinstall libmhash – I cannot find mhash.h
solution: yum install mhash-devel

configure: error: Directory /usr is not a FreeTDS installation directory
solution: yum install freetds-devel

Configure: error: Please reinstall the ncurses distribution
solution: yum install ncurses-devel

checking for unixODBC support… configure: error: ODBC header file ‘/usr/include/sqlext.h’ not found!
solution: yum install unixODBC-devel

configure: error: Cannot find libpq-fe.h. Please specify correct PostgreSQL installation path
solution: yum install postgresql-devel

configure: error: Please reinstall the sqlite3 distribution
solution: yun install sqlite-devel

Configure: error: Cannot find pspell
solution: yum install pspell-devel

configure: error: Please reinstall readline – I cannot find readline.h
solution: yum install readline-devel

configure: error: SNMP sanity check failed. Please check config.log for more information.
solution: yum install net-snmp-devel

configure: error: Cannot find libtidy
solution: yum install libtidy-devel

configure: error: xslt-config not found. Please reinstall the libxslt >= 1.1.0 distribution
solution: yum install libxslt-devel

Create a password file for Nginx basic authentication

It is really a hard time for me to find a way to create a password file for Nginx basic authentication, because I did not realise htpasswd crpty is not available on Windows.

Nginx documentation only mentions Use crypt(3) encryption for passwords, so I tried so hard with htpasswd.exe but could not generate a file recognised by Nginx. Hours later I found Apache documentation mentions -d is

the default on all platforms but Windows, Netware and TPF. Though possibly supported by htpasswd on all platforms, it is not supported by the httpd server on Windows, Netware and TPF.

I have two things to blame –

  1. I still use Windows to do my everyday work. If my first choice was htpasswd on Linux even without furthur instructions, it would have save me a lot of time.
  2. Nginx documentionation. If Nginx documentation is as good as Apache’s, Nginx may overwhelm the world.

Magento Skip Base URL validation before next step

终于明白 Magento 在安装时问的一个问题是什么意思了:

Skip Base URL validation before next step

Check this box only if it is not possible to automatically validate Base URL. 

如果给 Magento 指定一个 Base Url 在 internet 上不可解析,比如在开发阶段使用一个 Base Url 只在本机或内网内访问,则必须跳过 Base Url validation。